Create a good environmental question and answer for the construction of Shanghai Aviation Hub Port
[ professional classification ] airport operation [ Article ID ] 37-2009-0012
Create a good economic, service and legal environment for the construction of Shanghai Aviation Hub Port
Air transportation plays an important role in the operation of the modern economy, and the formulation of corresponding aviation policies and plans plays an extremely important role in promoting and guaranteeing the healthy and rapid development of air transportation. On November 1, 2004, the Shanghai Aviation Hub Construction Leading Group was promoted to adopt the Shanghai Aviation Hub Strategic Plan in Beijing. According to this plan, the overall goal of Shanghai Aviation Hub Construction is to strive to build a complete domestic and international route network after several years of efforts, become an air portal connecting the world and China, and eventually become the node of the world aviation network. The functional positioning of the Shanghai Aviation Hub is a large-scale composite hub integrating local traffic distribution functions, portal hub functions, domestic transit functions and national transit functions. The plan also proposed a phased goal, which pointed out the direction for the construction of the Shanghai hub port. The implementation of a good plan in modern society requires a good economic, service and legal environment. To this end, our reporter interviewed Dr. Wu Jianduan, an expert in aviation law, and asked him to talk about his personal views on this plan:
Q: What is an aviation hub port? What is the positioning of building an aviation hub port? What are the benefits of building an aviation hub port?
A: The hub English refers to the hub, which means the meaning of the center. In general, the understanding of the aviation hub port is the transportation center, but it is not. Before talking about the aviation hub in the modern sense, it is necessary to conduct a brief analysis of the development of the route. There are four stages in the development of airport routes:
1. Point-to-point transportation Before the 1930s, it was the initial stage of aviation development. Civil aviation transportation was carried out in point-to-point transportation or basic linear. Due to the technical capabilities of the aircraft, transportation Short flights must be refueled in the middle, and only point-to-point transportation is possible.
2. Leaping transportation In the 40-50s, due to the technological advancement of jet aircraft, there is no need to land on the way, but the main destination port is still point-to-point transportation.
3. Proximity effect From the 1960s to the 1970s, aircraft were able to fly long-haul flights, and were able to establish an aviation network that better reflected the size and function of the market, leading large cities to fly to small cities.
4. Hub and broke In the 1980s and 1990s, a large number of transit services, especially transit services for international air transport, were provided through the gathering and radiation of hubs. The hub port model, with the role of a distribution center, should be a hub radiation model in a strict sense.
The main benefits of the hub radiation model are:
1. Base airlines concentrate most of their activities in hub ports, reducing costs and improving economic efficiency;
2, increase the number of flights, such as flights from Nanjing, Nanchang, Hangzhou and other places directly to Beijing, passengers may be less, if you go to Shanghai, merged to Beijing, can greatly provide the capacity and passengers choice;
3. Maximize the utilization rate of the aircraft;
4. Increase the number of long routes, especially the number of international routes, and promote economic and cultural exchanges.
It is widely believed in the international community that the current aviation hub port refers to an airport with a large number of transit flights. A considerable part of the passenger and cargo flights do not use the airport as the origin and destination, but as a transit point. Other flights to the destination. The positioning of Shanghai Aviation Hub Port should be based on the leading role of a base airline to develop a large number of domestic transit flights, and then establish a domestic and international route network through alliances or cooperation between base airlines and other international airlines.
Q: The aviation hub port is a relatively new concept. Can you briefly talk about how the aviation hub port has developed?
A: The modern hub port radiation model is after the United States issued the unregulated law in 78 years. After liberalized market competition and a large number of mergers and acquisitions, a number of powerful airlines have formed, and then gradually developed into the operation of airlines in the United States and the world. The most effective mode. European experience also tells us that market liberalization and social demand are prerequisites for the development of aviation hubs. In the US aviation hub (radiation) port model, usually a base airline, around the base, radiates to provide direct flights to and from different locations, and its flight volume accounts for more than 50% of the total number of airport flights. In many small and medium-sized countries in Europe, there is usually only one hub airport, and such flights are provided by a major airline.
Generally speaking, an airline only has one hub port, but if the country's territory is vast, it can have multiple hub ports. An airline may also have a hub port where its transportation is dominant, such as an airline or a flight that accounts for more than 75% of the total; and a non-dominant hub port. With the development of the aviation alliance, it is likely that a certain hub radiant port in the future will be dominated by the transportation volume of a single alliance, and other companies or alliances will be auxiliary.
Since the hub radiant port is characterized by a large number of transit flights, the internationally popular practice is to rely on a centralized flight of one airline; and a joint flight with the airline. The former is more popular in the United States, and the latter is more in Europe. Different from the traditional transit flights, the connection between the schedule and the follow-up flights in the transit port of the hub-and-spoke port is strictly and holistically planned, which is also an important prerequisite for the success of the hub.
To become a true aviation hub in Shanghai, Shanghai needs a strong base airline that does not necessarily have an absolute advantage in all aspects, and develops a large number of continuing flights. Once such a network is formed, it can attract other airlines to join the connecting flights. In addition to the airline's own efforts, the coordinated and sustained support of aviation authorities, airports, and air traffic control will play an important role in the eventual completion of the Shanghai hub port.
Q: What problems will Shanghai face when it comes to establishing an aviation hub?
A: There are websites in the world that hold the best airports every year. Medium-sized airports such as Singapore's Changi Airport are often awarded, while large airports such as Heathrow and Kennedy Airport in the United States are hard to win. In fact, compared with medium-sized airports, these large airports handle a large number of transit passengers. Due to the reasons such as the number of terminals and the lack of flights, the quality of services is not up. The construction of the Shanghai Aviation Hub Port also faces many challenges, such as:
1. The scale of the base airline fleet is characterized by economies of scale, larger fleets, simpler models, improved aircraft utilization, reduced spare parts storage for aircraft materials, reduced man-machine ratio, improved utilization of sales networks, etc. As the average cost decreases, the revenue increases. The construction of the aviation hub port needs to increase a large number of flights, and also provides development opportunities for the development of the base airlines. However, how the company's flights are laid out and organically combined with the requirements of the construction of the aviation hub port will undoubtedly require high skills.
2. Construction and layout of airports and terminals Most airports in the world have only one terminal. The layout of facilities and advanced management terminals is reasonable, which is convenient for passengers to board, travel and rush to another flight. And for airports like Kennedy and Charles de Gaulle, there are a number of terminal buildings, and the docks are connected by buses. It is indeed difficult to provide quality services. The future expansion and internal layout of the Shanghai terminal should be scientifically considered to provide convenient services for passengers.
In addition, Shanghai's â€œone city and two gamesâ€ is a big challenge and constraint for the construction of aviation hub ports. The simultaneous operation of the two airports in Pudong and Hongqiao is difficult for passengers to transfer and route routes, and it also brings overlap and intersection for airport management and immigration management. It is necessary to plan and construct rail transit connecting the two airports as soon as possible and to improve the traffic from the urban area to Pudong Airport and to locate the two airports.
3. Airport company's service awareness
Early airports in the world are generally considered to be the arms of the government. There are two theories that have a great impact on airport management. One is that air transport is a public utility; the other is a number of business theories. In 1986, the United Kingdom enacted an airport law that required public institutions, such as the British airport authorities and local authorities, to transfer their assets, rights and responsibilities to private companies.
The privatization of US airports (full or long-term leases or most of the sale of property rights) is slow. The main concern of airlines is that once privatized, airport usage fees will increase. The amended US Federal Airports and Runway Improvement Act of 1998 does not prohibit privately controlled public airports from making proceeds, but there are no publicly controlled public airports when the law is passed. Under this circumstance, although the country is the owner of the airport, it does not participate in the operation, but promotes the awareness of the service of the private company through the form of government supervision and transfer of the franchise.
How to position our airport companies in the construction of aviation hub ports, how the state authorizes operations and how to deal with such problems as franchise rights will become an important constraint for airport companies to improve their service awareness and build a Shanghai aviation hub port.
4. Coordination of various units at the airport
To establish an efficient aviation hub port, it is also necessary to closely cooperate with relevant departments such as customs, taxation, immigration and security.
Q: Strengthening legislative and legal awareness and ensuring the construction of the Shanghai Aviation Hub Port is very important. Can you talk about this issue?
A: The airport is the intersection of ground and air traffic and is an important part of civil aviation activities. Many large airports in the world are like a city. They welcome guests and come and go. In particular, the international airport is the gateway to foreign exchanges. The management models of civil airports vary from country to country, but the overall goal is the same, that is, providing supporting services for safe, convenient and on-time flights. The operation of the airport has a strong social welfare. The Japanese government believes that the airport should be built and operated by the government.
The construction and operation of the airport requires laws and regulations to protect it. China attaches great importance to the legislative work on airport construction, technical support and security, which is fully reflected in the Chinese Civil Aviation Law and other series of regulations. However, China's special legislation on the airport and economic and legal regulations are almost blank. The affairs of the airport economic management are mostly implemented through the approval of the competent authorities to report to the higher authorities, and there is no guarantee or constraint of laws and regulations.
There are many foreign legislations on the airport. The British law stipulates that various airports are established and owned by different departments. The civil airports belong to the Ministry of Transport, the military airports are to the Ministry of National Defense, and the local governments, individuals, and companies have established Other airports. The civil aviation authority may not establish or acquire any new airport but may operate an airport that has been transferred to it or previously obtained. In 1986, the United Kingdom also specialized in the airport law. Since 1967, there have been more than a dozen regulations and orders concerning the economic affairs of the airport in the UK. The government has also formulated the regulations for the operation of Heathrow Airport in the United Kingdom. Our neighboring Japan has also specifically formulated the Airport Development Law to clarify the ownership and management of the airport.
The construction of China's aviation hub port is of great importance. Its planning and construction should be transparent and open. Relevant legal issues need to be widely consulted and even held hearings for democratic decision-making; or legislation after hearing. In 1999, the Dutch government held a referendum on the decision to build a new airport or to build the fourth runway at Schiphol Airport. In this way, we can not only brainstorm ideas, but also enhance the democratization of decision-making, and also enhance the legal awareness in the construction of hub ports.